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  ŬŬ鷻->洨֮ƪС˵ѡ->

    

    洨֮

    ԭҤĤȤϵУҤȤĶһ۾һһСijߡ˵ô񴵻ı飬

    Ţϣƾվˡż˵ϼ䣬þּɽ˺ˡǶ¾ͻġ

    Ƕϵһţ̨dzݺͺ֮䣬޽1774ꡣ

    ǹľdz˫ش˳ĺϣֶм𷫲ΧźĻͷӻǹɫᦡ˺붼ˡ͸Ļķ϶Կһëɼԭʽۻ׵ʽܵǣߺزȭԿҡԴسʲôϵǿֻ𻬻ĸоÿŰӻֶӵĴ¾ϾͺȻЦһ쵰

    ۼԭǽʱ1600-1867񶫾Ĺ潽֣伪ԭֵķӵܽëƤͷϡʱҲе´ʱ

    ׵Ϊڻҳëͷ״ᡣ

    ȥֻˮһããط⣬ʱʻһֻСһҫ۵ĺᲨĴġӺʭһƽˮ涣÷ơƳשǽһֱԶԶĵ̰һͷһƬʣѰ׵ۣ಻ϣǾŭŵӣͷвձʽľСӿ˰ڸպñѧСס˹ߣֻܿһĺڶ䶯

    ⵱һҴŵˡҲͻIJӷѾʻüˡĻͬᦣͷͬһʽġӡкӣëҡֳŸݡǴĽȻ졣ԿĻԼĪʮˡ֮ǰҺࡶӭ÷֮ĵӣͻȻӽʼֵİࡣϹֺЦˡ˺ȺмÿԼŮ˵ļɤŶѽģϣһİС˴Żߣ衣

    Ǹߵˣȸɢٺͷ¶ǼƯ¡µǰ׵ڰˢݵسɫҲˣںţѾȻһֻظâܵijĶƶѡҾƺȵж񶼲ˣʱֻ˾ΪʧĴӴȥŻζֽš

    ձصȸ޳

    Ⱦļơ1681-1763һȾɫʷḻɽˮȻһȾ秳޲ϡ

    ۺڰǺڰɵļơһֺɫ˺ͷµںӡԭڰɵ

    ҲֵõĵǼֺ赸ֵһ֡

    һ͸Цˣ塣ұЦ໥һЩۣŤǹɾͦء֪Ķϣ֡ѽһӡء

    ҲǾƾˣһǸˣ𽥽ŲͻֽͷǡһֻĽζţüضԵȥҲIJ£кΣҲû

    ʱոʻСĺᲨźбŻҵصһ¡ߵСһӳԲסˣ˸򣬳ǰ߻òײվȴת͵رɲסһ㣬ת˸Ȧһգ۵Ĺ򣬴ëų죬Դй䵽ˡ

    ϵĹֺȻЦ

    ӴŰҸҶˣ͸Ļķ϶ȥ˾ƣֵеվţеţһֱڰֶҲʱ񴭲Ƶһˣڳ¡֮׼dz벻ĻҾ档һиƺȵͨ˴ĻԴʧذ֣Ҵҵز֪Դ˵˾ʲôǣ֪ͻȻתͷӣ෴ɽ޺Ӱʻȥ

    ʮ֮󣬴ߵ˱ϢʹϹڵĶˡڶıֽġżصøϸһЩ˵ɽƽѪ

    ɽƽӸһձ컭ߵꡣƽʮģƲһȸߵСӺ͵Ķӡ˵㸻ԣˣȥ˵սʱڣһÿȸʯƵ϶¢һʺơ֮ǰǸ겻ǸӶѣȴ޼

    սָռս1894-1895

    ձء

    ƽԲ̣ͷͺ۽ϸơôһֻͷһǫͰȺֻǺȾƣƺ󵹲ô֡иë׼衣˵ǴǰŮϰѧŮʱҲġʱŻǷֶΪСǣõȻûԼôá˵һЩǼֱһ˵úһЩܻûϲ׫ᡣ˺ҲףȾƵʱ򣬹ֻ֣Ҳûʹ˼Ȱɽ磬ĿɣҲܹȥȻֻҪ˾ϾͰֽͷϣѹĵİ࣬ȣż磬νһˣ͵εͣԱ߲۵һdzҥȫܡ

    ϲ׫ձƽʱ794-1192ں䣨810-824ĺ͸ʫˣ˺Сϲ׫Ǹ輿赸֮һ

    ƹȣзصȥͻԲˡһϵԡˮʱ򣬵ˮϡһֻǰˤһ£ʮӾѹˡڶԼҵĶѷˤģ˴򣬲˰ͷײŻָ־ÿһζٺȾƣֻǸշǸһӣûкȵǺžֿˡ˵һϢܡȵԽԽ࣬¾ֹ̬ȡȴںϹ˵ʲôȾƺ񷴶岻ȫһµӡ

    ܺձݻλʮΪһ

    ƽȾƣ˵ϵҪ˵ҲǺȲɡΪһȾƣӾ׳֪ܾö˭Ҳؿˡ˯˯˭ƽһеĪοԼҲ֪Ϊʲô

    ƽֻ֪Լһ˾ȫ˸ˡһ裬ƾҲȥ˼Ҷ˵ֵͦġȻͻеʮΪ飬ͨǺһͨһͳ࣬ôˣ糿ֻһƵġʵԼ˯˵£񶼼ǵ䵱ʱԼͽԼ˱ȽϣҲͬһˡôһƽأҲ㲻ƽʱDzȾƵģֻżһءôûкƽӦƽˣҲ˵׼ΪºΪ޴͸£Ǿɳġ軹ǺõءζԲڻ£֪ôһһЩĹԼɳ¼ֱǷˡ

    ҮŬ˹Դ˭Ҳ֪ĸԴƽҲ

    ҮŬ˹ǹ˫ƹճ䡣

    ǰѾ˵ƽʱƽͺƵƽˡҲûбƽʱƽóѵˡƽԼʱҲôΪҲΪ̵ʲôôŵġȣѵʱʶԼڳѡȻѾ˵ȥ֮ҲᷢǸѡ˵ʱȴȫǺ

    ƽԼҲ֪ΪʲôҪ˵ϹֻҪ˵ŻԾȻȻػڶȴ˶еգҲԼʲô顣ÿ컹Ǵֵسѡ

    ƽ˵ʮһʱϴֽȥѧͽϰǷڢٵĿͽٷһͨſÿӡƽոԹ£ϰϣƲһУ˽ˡλϰ屾ΪؼҰڵģž÷һҲ飬ͻȻͽڢڣѹŵĵ͢ۻӵܵĻյֵ췭ظ

    ٷձʱ1192-1333ɮ1222-1282ڵһɡ

    ͽձʱɮ𽣨1173-1262ľڵ׳ơ

    ۵Ƿ𷨵ػļơ

    ڵػļơ

    ƽڵһֱɵʮꡣڼ䣬ˣȥѰиϤļŮҪеΪѣҸڿˣºһ֮ǸŮĸεĹһѰˡڸõ»һץ

    ʮϣˣʹֽǹؼˡԼĪԺһ죬һ͹õƹģ˵ǡٶҸдһšƹʮ⣬Ϊ˺ΪָˣñʡҪдǡ˳ǰƽ˵дˡǸŮģƽ͸˾ЦҲѽƹĻش˵ҽ㡣죬ƹ˵Ҫ˼ȥתһתͳȥˡҲҵҲһ˲һʿաǷŹȻǸõŮдġ鹵дŵƽ

    һжϹġҪǴ֪ƽһгЩѻ϶ʲôҲʣˡ

    ƽϵͻϼѾƸǽ˻ߣ

    ǰѾ˵ţ͹ˡǶһܾĪڱԵԴϵԪʦƽ˳ʦԴǿϲ˾ں󼦵ĺ̺ϡϵͷͷе˵Цô죿ƽȴ˿

    ԪԪڵļƣڼҰ˵գһɣʱĻ䣨1804-1818Ԫ̫1777-1825

    ˾ǰ׷ô׺εζ󣬰˵һʳƷϲ˾ġ

    ͷͷԱߵͷʦЩְ֣ƽļ򣬺үүιүүĬָ⣬ѾˡͷͷʦһƽϷŲ飬ƽүүιүүͷʦŵˡ

    ʱߺ淢˵΢˵Ǻ˵ʦĶ䣺桭ժˡߡͷͷʦ÷ƽժֽߡ

    ȻѾƽƽʱˡˣ촽ɫ԰׵𤺹էһ˭ҲϲǸͰסϲȤ˵渶ƽȫûбֻǸĻߣڴĺ̺ϣԻı鰲ƽ

    һһʮ

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һҳ 洨֮ƪС˵ѡ һҳ
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