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֮ ڶ ͣķ֯



ѪۡѩŢˡҲûˣȫ½ֻҰ븴ʮ죬ڻŻصҮ³ϵ׶ѷδͻƹ֮ǰܹɱʮˣȴҲӡΩһܹصģֻиʹŶɶһˡҲѾ˺ۣԵһԽߣҮ³λڱ߾ϵĵһŷ֮㽫иҽչˣԼԴƬ֮󣬱㳯׶ѷˡӵڶԽҮ³ϵ֮

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ʱĹ͢ѾһƬȵĺ֮СʵۿĹѾ﹬УǴҮ³ϴʹµСݴģʹ³ַأӦ̽ɵۡһصǹ鵱ûᵽģǾҮ³ܾҪĻôƱػᷢӣȡ׼

Ү³ϹĦIJŸۺܸߣҲΪˣŻ͵ϾıҸפʹΡΪλԽΪһ⽻ٵְݣʵ۵ķŭأĦǸе˼⡣ȥ³ɸ̳ս۱֮ʣĦ˳ˮ۵ؾ³ɸĵʮݡһĹ˵ѾһֵôĹʮʧȥĻǾ˵͵ʴסȻĦԲһúƽľδʮݵȫںϵҮ³֮ǰҪά֮ھƽ¡

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ڳ¸˵Ϊʹʹģ֪ԸκγͷԹԡ

ְ˹ʽĻشֻǸüĦЦáʱ򣬳͢ٹ۹ңÿԱҲˣô೯Уһֶ϶еΪеʹ

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ѯĶһλսϽǰ׺ϿսУָͬս

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ѯĶԡ۽ųƵһ׳ʿ²ϣضŰͶԶݵһƳ֮漴Թԣ

ҲΪ˹ϽȷģĿǰΪǿҪ󣬶ʹҹijܺĻ»ΪйЦ

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²ϣؽ֮󣬼Ħɵüͷ˼²ϣһͣʱȴ᰸һԹ˵Ǿ޷Įӵġ

²ϣ˵ȷʵҲһҲʵ۰ҪۿҾбȥһ

׼͵ǰҲѱһǿӲҪ󡣼Ħģ˵IJɻҮ³ˮݵĵйȥȻֲ³ɸ̳սֻۣ˵ǿǰԿ˴Ҫ󣬼Ħ߻ȥһ뵽ͻͽǿʹǵҪŪһЩ⽻ܹʵ۵Ҫ

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ǣѽҪһʵ߹ϵͬˣڱϿһ׳٣ʵֻǸһ֯ģ

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£³սȷʵDzҰܶȡȻʹñǡǣΪЩһȡҮ³ϱԷȨ

۵ʮֻС⿴ô롱ˮ׼ѣԼĦֻDzȤصͷȻǰЩֻǿףΪȤŪһ㼼

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Ծ֪ʲô

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ǵģֻ¶йϢйѾ𵽿ص֮ϢֻҪɿض֮ˡ

IJԿ˵Ƕ۹ʱҮ³Ҫ󡣵Ү³ϵ۹µ˵ں±ѾȥҪؽĻô۹ܾͻתԿҪ󡣵ʱؽӦҪʵϣڿأԿظ޴ӻӦôһĻܾͻᷢԿؼԳͷ

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ĦԼ˷ܶԼٵĺһ潫Լս

һļıûЧʵûϵĻǸôأѵͲᷴҪҮ³Ͼнأߵ׼ժ𣿡

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ĻҲûʲô֮֮ͬ£Ү³ϴеıؾڣùҹİͼ֮СȻǿҪҹأҲûɶҹǴˡ

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ĦչһЦʱӷһֱֳĬݲϣؽԡ

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£´⡣˷ŵ᰸©ڡڸ©ĴڶóȻеĻƱػ붴׶޷

֪ν©ָΪΣ

ݵطʱ²ϣת˵

һֲԤİʡһҾȫؽĻȻأҮ³Ҫıǿհ״̬ҲΪҹ״̬Թۡ

²ϣص˼ָܳҮ³ȫʱҮ³ϱ

ҹȡȴҪɥʧĴۡΪһʱɱζ֮еĻƱؽЦˣΪ˳ߣӦҪУȰ˵´õðգ˵Dzأ

һۣҲ޷̷ĦҲֻεسĬ԰²ϣôһֱΪʱҲðɣǶ˵ĻȴҲ޷һ͵Źı飬һ飺

²ϣؽȷʵҳķθ֮ԣе֡£΢⻹һ뷨ÿ֮ʱк֮ǣ޷ĵɱſճǡ

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Ħĵشӹ̽ӡҰĵļƻȶκȷ۸ȤȻǸػش

ƣ¡ڻʵۿӴĹѻ֮϶



۹ڶʮʵۿ˽æµĹȽԵ÷dzƽȡĿǰʱȷʵ˵ġʺǵ¶ɶڹ뷿Уȥ˰ǰ㣬Գŵ黷ߡǿһʼʱ򣬾Ͳǵ¶ɶҪ

¶ʮһ죬Ү³Dzһʹǰʵּۣ˵ǰʹѾصϢǴѻʹڰ칫УҮ³ϹױŽȻѯ

ΪΣ

ѻֻ΢һǷױţȻͺܿذ۵侲Ƕ촽֮к

£ˡðֱԣҮ³ţ͵ŶʳͬDzΣԵĶҮ³ϵͼףϣҹìͷָءĿرǵùĵߡ

жȫͬġҮ³ϵͼȻƻȴԶ׼ġ

һ´˹ʶIJڡҪζԸҮ³˽ƻĴأȻֻЦЦȡκжʱڵ۶ŵŶѾۼ˶ʮ͵쵼Ļʵ۷ʩʵ۵Ƥ޾ָĸָĻǿأָϵĻҮ³ϣеĽѾעŻʵľϣһɷĶʳ

Ү³˵鷳Ŀ¾ҷԼȥصҪɡʹҮ³ϵĻȡʲôĶԲߣǰأ

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ʱҪӻʵߵУжϳһѾȡijַ׼ĻжʵǺ΢ġ

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磬ǻôġݷԿ˵Ħʱס

ŵųЦݣһǾǧ˹ǣԼһǧԶڹ־

Ҳԣ˵ͼÿ²ڵ۶ڼ䷢ҡôһĻ¿ܻΪ˼׵Ҳڵ֮ڵġҲֻЩ޷˽֮Ĵ־СʩչIJ԰ˡ

ܹ£ŻIJԷզͬʱܻı֮ϵıеëȻעܲű֯ɵIJȻһһʶƣԭҪϵֶãʹ֮Ϊ̼λĹߡ

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ܹĺģֻ˵һӢۣƺǶ޵۹ˡ

Ц˵ĬȻһӦڻʵ۰칫еijĬȲҲĬ̺壬ȴġ

磬۹ڶʮʵۿڻʵ۵˼ټҪijԼȾʮʾԼķ룺

̬ȼΪѷҲʵ޾Ծʧ

ľ

ڼ䣬۶ŵŶͭȸ˹أ⣬ѻڱأȫ۹򡣡

ԣͬʱҲǿľȻ֪Ү³ģԾô

ʹ˶ȥɽĻôҿҲˣʲôưˣ

ǿ뷨ʹҪأûô򵥡֮ԾַضҮ³ϣҿڱϣʵϻһdzݡһ̵ɡǵҮ³Ͼڵʱ򣬽ѻΪǿһǽͭȸ˹ȻҲʵվֻǸֱʿȥҮ³Ǹϼ޻Dz̫ǡ

Ϊܹı֮ϵģˡս֮Уܾ˵ĻҲδһýǿ־Ҫ֮һȻиǰᣬǿȷֵ֮Ŀԡ



ڿ˵һ޴ֶĴ켴ҪˡԴǰΪ⵽Ұܣƽʧȥһij֮󣬿ع˹һֱԵȻʱ򣬺ܲ۹ǿӲҪؽҮ³ɵڡ

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һӽĻش̬ȴԵʢˣ

DZѾһʵȲ˽ֲԵ飬ȻǼȱ⡣۹͵һ޶֮󣬽ò

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ôһݷ˵ܺߣǾڴԼһǰĶԵؾбģǿˡѭĽֵҪҺԵɵжˡ

ͷ֪˹ǿټȫеľӣĦ˹Ӧеǵ¶ʮյʱȴΪʹԭԵθס͢¿ʼҡڹ֮УЩ˻æʰ˲ƲԱŻ

һ棬Ү³׶ѷ֮УҲչսʼĴɢҥԣҡģͼʹʵۿ֮ǡҥԵݣȻĹѻд۶λҰģͼŻʵۿʱ򣬾ٱ췴ʹʵ޴ɹ顭

ҥ̵ĵطݼȫʵ֪һˣǴԵıͼӺͬһҰıԵȻԿҰģȴûκ֤ݡ

ʹܲҵ֮ʣҲűľģҮ³µţ

һʼʱҪͬ˵IJǹǹӦҪɱҹͬսʱΣһս

һȫȷȴšҮ³ϵ˵֮ԽͬУȫԼҵ档иõʱѿҲȻġԿ˽ľԮʱҮ³ҲֻڱϹػش

ڹеͬ顣ʵΪ˶϶еΪҲͬʹҹ൱̶ȵţڲϡϣҲʵûԹṩԮֻȹǰ

˺ĻشȻпظеʧҷ߿ǰĴȻֻһζеУǿؽŶţ

еҮ³ġҪҹʹӦҮ³ϲǡ

ʵϣŸ֪ġˣȻӹأʾۿصȷġ߸ǹ磬ܽܣһȥ³ɸʱһġ

˳һȥ³ɸʱһɣ

ϸֳ΢Ц֮漴DzʹǰҮ³ϵĹĦּ˵ԹͬĵˣҲӹַ֮ͬʱ㽫ϲʮ

ӻʵ͵ױ֮󣬼Ħ̲סߺ޵

ߣƿһһΪǵģȻһ١ٶʹҾѵΪҾΪһؾ͸е𣿡

ܼĦķӦ˼ңڻظʵ۵ױʱȴܽķŭرϾҮ³ûʮţܹ潻ʱԷҲΪûнɵγһڿеİѱΣڱϻDZͬӣȻ̬ĽչĦ׫дһ߾Ŭϡݣȴε߳ţһ棬ҲԾ´ȫܶԱIJ档ʱʱڣǾܹΪ̰ͼаݵӣģΪսDz֪ʲôʱӵԼĹ

ʱҮ³ϿʼʢһԣѷҲһɧǹϵˡԼУһıʿԾӵ



ϣڹĦټ֮£ʱӦDzѷæظϵԼæǰ˼ʱ䵭ظ֪йظҥݣ

ʢʵ۹ͨĹ

һʮ㡢ôһ˵ҲĿɿڴԶԡҥָ̽DZˣƫƫɴ˿ɼҥ鹹ʱԵҪСӦΪҲ֪Լһڶࡣ

ѵ𣿡

ţ޶ָֽΪ̽˵൱ȤǷ޵뷨Ҳ˵ԲŴǰ

֪¡ʱΨһܹ˵Ļ

±ǼĦ˵ĻȥŪŸ⽻IJԣΪ۹ĹʵʵĽأȥļı֮£۹ǵûбʵ³ɸʷϿǰĴͼأҲΪIJıֿأʹ۹Ļôرй׵

ɹôһƣҲزЩҡԭ˱뷨Ǿ̫ˡȻеĶҡȻԣ˵һֻʱı࣬ΣԼ̽

𣬲ôһĻDzǻĽأһһΪ۹IJԣһһܣȻļıΪ£dzɹĹʵȴȫָժDzǻ˵˵أ



ʱģǡԶԡ仰дաȷĿǰ̬չĽһֱ۹Ūڹ֮䡣ֻ̬ıжϵĻӦּԳһ־ʵ̽һǸܵıʿȻЩⲢʵԣȴشġ

ΪͺڸӱѻܵУѡһԼϲ˵ɣеԼѾΪʼѣˡ

ڱ΢ת壺

޲Ϊʲô̽ҲΪܣΪޣ̽ȷʵܵĻǸӹĹ

ĦйƵ³Щ΢еĨǵ̨֮һԼ˵

֪ЩҥĶһdz޿κΡָܹģֻһǽ߾IJǣǰŷɥҲڴ֡

ʵ̿֡һÿ澡ʧ޹⡣

ϯʹ˽Ļô֮ϵԱΪ̸ǣҲۼĦ뷨ΣʲôһȤҲûУ˵ʵҰĵĵ߰ˡ

ĦȻȿҪ곤ʮ꣬ʵҲʮ壬Ŀǰֵ׳ʱڵʵǸ൱ᡢҳδԵĹȻΰӢ۵ʣŸʵҲDZѰһܹˣŪĿܡԣһгưȫ½֮Ұĵ˵Ү³ϵļĦ۹Ŀһǰ·ϵİʯ綼Ҫġֻ׶ѷʢһѾôѹʱ䣬ܱԭԤʱҪһЩˡ

˳̻صԼլۡΪõʱѾˡլۡͬľܿǵĶĿڶ¥̸УһİСӣڵȴ˵٣˱ǵȥΪֹһֱ۹ζ̸̹ҵϰѾƺ͸ңʽԵػຮ֮⡣

ǰѾ׶˵ΪЧ׶Ǽһ˵ҪЭ˵ĻҪһ

ʲô

˵ܹǰλδ˸¶ͽĻԸԶΪЧҡ˾̫̰ˡ

ζ̹۵ЦšȥΪɱʵۿ˰ţ⣬֮DZҮ³ϣһһȻعı棬˫໥ЭĻϵȻѹϵڸΪij̶ϣ߹ͬй֮޲ڿδ֮ǰԼϵζ̹˵ȷʵڵļֵζ̹֮ǰ׶ϣͬΪݵ׶Ҳܹһ롣

׶ԣ˰ζ̹ͬ۹Ǽ޿κε飻ΪûرҪѻʵۿ˼ҶҲرʹޡǣֻҪͳһûб򵹣׶һ첻ܵõҸָܻеȨƣҲİĸ¶أ綼زȥ͸Ү³ЭܹʹЩԸʵֵĻʲôأ

˵ֱ̫ˡŵɹ֮ʱһʽĵλʮݵش׶ټ¶ء׶DzԥΪЧ



۹ֿصľжУΪ۹ȷIJӣǺ򹫹ǧǹ̳𣬸δްȹʿϲЦͰȹ˵ǡȫǿһԡЦdzġǰЩԺ򹫹̳˵ݣ϶ŵĹ֪֮ʵΪѻȹδ򡱡ƺ𲢲ʲôرIJǰ뿪ʱʵѾ򣬽׵Ķһжɹһӵ˷ԺյĵλЩʴӣȻҲ͸ȥ£ΪӺɷӦˡͬʱҲһ뷨ϸûκһˣܹ밲ȹҫͬȵĹԣеΪǵ뷨ա

ȹΪ󷽵IJ飬ʱ뿪Եʱһʱû˵ĶֻǶǰʱɵòĶ

ԭ򵹲ΪӵİȫΪҪӺĻͱҪ򹫹ȫΪеĴۡʱںĦ޴ϵߣͬʱŰȹһĽѻŮչѾˣһȥࡣĦ޴Ȼʧ޷жȴ൱۰ҲڴϵߣͰ͵ΪһЩʫʷ鼮˶൱ϲΪһεĺҲijЩȥ̳лءḸ׵УӶѧֵտĿȤƺȻӽ书ҪøߡĻҲ޷ΪΪһҫ͡ϲսľΪһѧաٽڸľúһЩֻ̳йλ֮ǰڵĺƽȷĻôΪһʵ¾ʣܾͱɵҲ˵Ȼͳκ򹫹ĵλ˻ϣȻǿĽ飬ҲλôαҪԼҵǣĿǰΪֹǶְϵ൱ߵġ

ˣҲǺ򹫹еԱܹԴͰȡȻΪ˷棬ر˵ĸԣDZϾǺ򹫹һ׼Ĺһƽ˵޹ؽҪǶһЩв׼Ϯǿҵ˵һζ⣬˸оǼӵĵλ˸۶ˡʱԶصľУлӵʿ͵ˣһͬʿ׼ͬκ֣ȫгеIJ

ʵʱ˸Ǻͺ򹫹һϵҲûеˡΪĸСʿܹôɻڴһأ

ô˵ӰΪ⣬˭ܹΪҺ򹫹أ㵽Ҳһʿܾƺ̫ڿˣòҪƽɣκôһȰӿƲسĬˡ

ʱһΣյ뷨˻ӵ

ûʸΪĻôһӲҲͬʸԼΪʿΪľҲѾжʮ꣬๦ѫȥڵʱҲнн죬˭񲻵ģô˭ܹԤھԺ󣬻ʲôı仯ءӸоиģĶĵðȵĭʱͬŵǰϽָоǿѹ

򹫹н鵱УȮУȮսƥСԽսʿǵ˽ڣȻûйΡҲûְλȴܵ򹫹븱ݷ˰š

ڣЩʲôѽ

ôһزٿԼµԣ˿ȥȻ̧ԲԲ°ָͣǰнһʿ˵

ǸлӵˣҪСһźࡣˡ

˵ôһ֮󣬻ڽ˵Żκ˵Ļڶڼܹijڣ̸֪ݵļоܾ֮һ

΢üͷ˵

ӶȷʵDz̫ƣҿΪˣӦòڻỳжҰIJǡ

ʱľ綾Խģˡ

ڽװ˼ӾƵƤң˨ӣǿҵľƾעĿУȻŴµգƵ

ֻҪһҰĺͲܣκ붼ʵ֣˶뷨ⲻ˵ĸ˵Եʣ׶û;֮ǰҲǸʿ𣿡

Ȼû˵ȴر˵ͬĻΪΣõĵλڱdzԽ˵ҰĺͲܣԼƺûʸκۡ

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