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һ׹ҹ

1

Ǽ¶֮ǰǸҸˡú󣬵¬߲ɱʱô˵߷߲ƽأմմϲء

Ǽ¶ģҹ1349꣬ǿ缾ǰ¬ȴү߸ããԭѲԡǸǼҵȫ¬߼ҵūšǿ

ԨһĴعϳһͷܣ¬߿ǹҪĺ˺ڰıԭʱ˺һƥѩյţЩץһơСʬȻη¬߽һǹƥѪ˻˻ѩտһǹ

ǰͷܵƤȡĵЯľһУ¬ߺĻĵٺ

羢ׯϵţȺҫǡ¬ߴźڣѩճǰ档ǰ˷ĽЦȶ˵˶һȺ޷ļһڶʮǰӦúһģ¬˷ܵؼţұ޴µ

ʱǽˡ

Ƕһе

¬˵ıַ°ɡ翴ġ

ƽû˻עģҹǷdzࡣһ׹ķʽأǵĿ⡣ǷɿһȶءȽȽ½²ĺаʾijصġںĿռʡ

˸ˣǵôһûҲûֻǾе̫ա

ǹءղŵһָǵĸ˵

¬˵Ƚźһѩյ߹ǣ׹ķȥȵ˵һԽ̣ȥѽȥǿǣ

ʹǵѪҺȣҲȾֶԿ񱼵ĿڼžĻԭϣɫƤۺѩյİë΢Ļһšȥǡ

ԭչޱ޼ʣϷӳĺ⣬΢ãDZ󣬼ңԶĵط֮һĨ죬صߡҹһҲᵽǶȥ

ԽԽˣǸϵҪڵײűΪź֮󲻾ãֹܲסˡ

¬ߺǸ׷ѽǺԵɵػš

ӭŷܳʮǰѽӽƽߣĺӳһɽ͵

һȺͣ

Ǻ˹ɽ¬˵֪жԶˡ

ŰչΰԼСӵij˵ߵ˹ɽҪһٸʱү

¬߱仰ˣǴ

ˣүʵػػ

¬γһޣһԲظϡ

ûȺɽ棬Ĺâɽ֮зʹڳɽĶһߡ˺þãâŰȥ

Կ϶ں˹ɽɽˡ¬߲˵ֻ˲ۡūҲ

ĺҹûоͷġ¬ùڲϵıʱ䣬ǿ쾫ĽСǿ缾ǰϵ

ʱӪɡ¬ҪԳԼǸ쵼ߡ

˶ձжĸȥڵء¬վſǸɣǸϸ͵ôѥͲ

dzӲǷϻһ꣬κζӲġ¬ǰѱһӲٿ¶˼Ǵıȡ֮ˮڵǧٳߣبʹˣҲʷҪϡ

ūǰٳᵽȥ¬ߵĿֱDZ֧ijˡǴݳƷľɡ¬̲סҪĶ¶ͺ;ηô㲻ƤĶмסˡңѵùҲ¡

¬˵ůӺõơ¬ֿ˿ƣҲŪƵĶǸŵϻϣôܷأҲ̫Ū¬ȴү

һˮպˣ¬ϴõġԹں裬ˮȥȻ˳ů͵

¬ϴ裬ڶˮտˡǾŹġҽ֬Ũ˸оơȻ¬߾ͽ˯ˡ߸ԵƤë˯ΧһȦ¡һȦ

˯֮ǰ¬뵽޵ļ£ܡˡдЩ׳Ĺǡ׷ǿǷȥ룬Dz˿еһСôΪġ

һֱ˹ɽţ;һӪĴΡ¬߶ǵȤʵѾܵˣҪǸŵԣҪѰǿ׹ǣҪϵ׹ĵطȻĻǾһС˵Ľˡ

ĴӪ󲻾ãƥѩƤ̵Ĵߴọֻ̈̄һʱ͵˺˹ɽȵڡʱѩʼ¡

˹ɽһطǮ˲ȼ٣ΪƧģҲѰҰΪθվ̽ҲӲҹУȴʮҪĵλ˵֮׵ĺ˹񣬾;סɽеĶѨͨ԰Ż

˵һȺδʲôѵǺȶ˾ƵĶʮȻӰ졣ȿԺɽڣDzɵͣסһ뿴¬ߡ

¬˵ơ

ÿƥѩյļϹһյƣĻ䣬ƹɽ֮СеƮѩƬ⣬쳣峺ڹ߼ɢ䡣ԣ⼸յƵ΢ֱİĹڡ

ȥɡ¬̾ϢƵ˵

ѩնĪֱǰǿ쳣˷ܵţŲһһȻƮɽȡ

үϢľףָŵϵʲô

¬õһգǼֻäһЩᣬææȥҹοÿ궼Ⱥӵҹ綬ߣǿ缾һǾ׼ʱѣֺƺƵؿȥ

ȥʲôأʲôٻǣʹΥȻϹǰˣ

ΣҪȥءʱðһɵүɿ

ǼǰȻʼһǣڿţֶɵͷɵԵظ˦βǰϡ

¬߽һƣҪ˵Щڱˡ

һǴǫ˵

¬üͷ졣˭ܸʲôһ

Ȼû˭Ӯݽ͡·Եɽϡ´ҴҸ·СˡǼֱˡһֻѩغҲڶ֮УƻֵӵСӼ֧ǹ׼ǰнš

¬߰˸ǵǹܣ˵Ҫ֣ͱЩаˣ

ǻȥɣ̽ʡ

¬߾˵Ҫʲôа˭¾ֻܻͷɡ

ûһ˻ͷⲢ˵Dz±ϾСӵ绹ġ

߸ߵɽڵס磬ʵǸЪűܺĺõط˸ĵţԼЩΡ

ͻȻˣ˹Īص

¬߱ŪëȻʲô

Щһȥ磡˹ٻǣ˵ôදħһظ·ǹ£Dzүүǻͷɣ

¬Цһ£㻨˲ٹоءӦȥڿĴԴû¾Ͱ롣

˵үô˵ɣǻͷ

¬߰ŵǹָ졣ǰߣҪһֱ߽ȵȥٸҺҾʹ㡣

Ƭ̣ҵߵ˶ǰͷ

ڣ¬Ҳее㲻Ծ˵ﲻԡһձϵ߶һֽ⿪ӵµĺëΧʱ׹ɽԽԽůˡѩٻ浽ǵͷüëϣҲһֱǶûע⵽

׷ѰǸʹرůԴɲҲǸ緢Ļɽڡ

¬ߺֹܿǣûҴδ˵һйɽУѳΪ۾ӵػɽ緢ñȽºͶйɵСɽҹ˵Ȼܿ⡣

ʲô¬߿ʩչձбչۣʰһŶʡ

Ƕһֻӡ

¬濴ȥ·ߡﶼȥĶԽǰԽࡣҲЩǺѾˣ¬ȴ¹һֱ߽ȵףͷ

ǻ˳Dzٲ·ﶯ޼ɵռɽ·롣

رߵǷԼ˹ȵסǰľ˿־壬ʹ˾η

ɽΧסһƬȻ㳡Ķ鼷棬ĬšĤǰǸ

죡¬ߵ˵

ⲻǡ

ҲǺ˹¬߶Ȼ

Ѿ˫ֽǰ

ڿ˵ʹ

¬˵ѵƶص

ƹˣȻйǡDzǹ⣬Ǵӵ棬ɽӳ΢ӫ⣬ǸĵײĹ⣺֮δȫϨʹضͻȻůĵ֮𣬻ȼŰ΢档

¬ͻȻ˵ôܿ϶ǵʹأ

дأ˵ݹȵˣʹҪǡ

¬˵֪Dzʶֵģ￴أӽģ

ү˲ᵽķʦæͷ

¬߽˵һôдģţݹȵˣǽΪԼָ֮ǰˡǣʹӦȥ硣

ǶүԨƺû̫ġСʣôʲôأ

ǻȥʷʦɣ˵

¬߲мһˣǸƭӡֻҪƿƣ͸ҷ˵ħľ˾ˡ

ô죿

¬ָŵ棺ǿʯͷ𣿻зIJݡˮѩɽϪҪЩϡȥټʯͷҡЩˮװƤ

ִˡ

ʥء¬˷ܵ˵ؿŴɽеģǧĶĤŵĴ

ѩԽԽ

2

ˡ

DzѾ˯˶á˵׼ȷΪҲû˯Σˡ

䣬ɫݣճطЩʱ䱾һϣһɳʱķϲоеķݵĿϲؾIJɣĿǰΪֹûʶԼѾӵ͸ĺ濾

ҵĻͬǵ𤽺һţδѡ䶯ŵڲУеʺɫϸ͡ж⣬ʰʡ

ʹģı΢ٳŽʵάҶһˮ˳Ű룬ֱӹעڡһβ԰׵ճ״Ӷϰˣ׹䡢ʵؿĶѨبͱռţɿܵţֱʯͷѨϵͳΪǡ

ʵעҪףҪ׼ġһ˯ǰõõ׼ƷЩԽӵԳѾģԡڣʣij˯ֽ֮ͬһļƷٻ

ٻDzΥġǺ˹

3

ѩӵĻԭϣնнúܼѡӾǰ治Զˡ¬߿˺ܾãȰʥصߴķʦΪǸǣڽ̵ʶȻΧ˶͸ʹ¬ҪԭǣȻڳһ½ǡЩ˵ʹ֣ԼֻǸ±˵ģΪ˵Եúɡʵסﶼ

ǺķǽùDZůСþƺܿɢϵĺ䡣¬ѾЩʯͷʥˮøӷʦˡΧ̸ӣͷӶ¬ߺϲָоҶΪү˼ϵ̨Ĵ¡ü֣صʦۣѺصľ̯ϣǶݵ䡣ʵϵϵòࡣ

󣬺Ӳϵĺҡҡͷ

˽ˡ¬ĵ׷dz⣺ķѾסһʦǼ˵¡

ʦ˵дŸϣɡ˵꣬Ѱֽ̺ãʼдˡ

¬ⷽԺее㼵ʡΪһϵú֣ܶдųڶ·Ҳ硣

дã¬˿ɷнµصͷܶԵģŷϣŲ͵ȥֱͽϵļ˵¬ȴϮʹ巨ʦдġҪŪˣҾ㡣

ְҪȥڷд˼֣˵¾˵ҹҪְ

¬߾÷ʦЩȥķ⣬ʹ˵Ҳʺϡ˵ҹȥЩ̧Ͱȥ

Ųߺûã¬߳˰յüõѩãڴϢ

˯ˣεܶ顣ɱľŸɽеĴſ˳ŰĴڣ淭㲻Ļ棻Ĵ˰Ĵ룬ϵǣֿڻԭ»Ұε׷ȥǼһعͷͷʱˣͷ۾

ү¬ǿۡһŮůƷͷϡ

ˮ¬֣ô򵥵˵ɵţʲôȵġϸһĶǶ궯š

ˮоһЩˡŮ˵үͷϺȡȫǺ

ȷ¬߾Լȫʪˡ죬ֺһˮ

û°ɣŮĵʡ

¬˼ؿԼҾúܺáչ˫ۣס

Ůÿ󹤵£ܿ챻¬ΰĻסˡ¬ء

ȹ͸һ¬ȴſˡĪ˵ҵͷϣ˯ˡ

ǿҵļдߴ¬ҰʳƵζĵƹ£һźӰŤ

¬ӣҲǺӰƿĹֽȥû̡

źӰֳ¬ȻܡӰƶԣͳ¬߸ζضһۣͷž޴ˡ

Թ¬ֵת߸Ůˣеġǵ˶ŻˡبŲĶҹСĵƹİ˸ڻҰϡããѩϡԶȮ͡ѩµǶˡ¬ߺĸǣִŵŴˣŮ˺ˡ

ҹǵϢʱֵġ˯֮ʱһ졣¬ȴ˯֮ǵŲŽϵ飬ðѩ˻

΢ֶϴ룬ЩʯͷʥˮоһȻ¬ߵIJϣ˳ƪ֮ۡѡһ֧ӣЩĶ͵ϸȥɳ㱨˭֪أҲ¾ܾʥ¡ʥ¿ܻӼǡ

ĵĿԣƺûӰ¬ߵdzƽ͡Եúȴһͣ١Ծ򶨷ȺθڵͣҲ˵档

Եһ룬ϯȥһ¡

һŭػ˵󻰣̫󻰣

¬һۣͷʳ

Ƭ̣¬߶ԼķŭûзӦŵ˵ˡֱԣҾĴЩħġ

¬ͷҲû̧˵

鱻̬ٴˡ˵ղţȵĽ￴һĻֵ龰һҧһֻҧסͷҧĶ䡣ҹȥʱˣȻͼʮĻƾٶְԱ

ǵķʽ¬ߵ˵

û壬üͷʣ˵ʲô

¬վߵߣϣ־۹Ͷŵʹ

쵹ڵ£˴ӡ´ۣһѣеѪɫ԰׵Ϣ˵Ҵû˵˶ӵġ˶񶾵оûһְԱܹ

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ϻһһ׵ġɼرߴһԷС˵ϴѾסˡ

¬߳־ڴš˵ʵ֪ԼôˡĹҧˡûбҧûҪ

ٹһ죬ͻȫ

ڶ죬¬;ͳѲӡˡתķ⣬ʲôҲûС

ѩĻУ̿ĺƶ΢̤ԽԽ

һֻ¬߶ͷôһߣ߻кüӣǧءҲ٣ࡣȥɣȥ

ٶ۵̧ۿ¬һšϢش˳ȥӰ̱ѩûˡ

¬߱˫վšˮˣȥáˮϽѵıȻԵá

ͻȻиݺݵء͵͵˵µȥɣ

¬߻ûתͷСһľʹԴϡ¬һԵԵˡҿ˿ûˡľѸո˿Էغãҵˡ

¬ڵϣѩһӣܾöûжһ¡˷ͷ¬߽Եӣֻ࿴˿Ȼǰ¬̧ů͵Է

ʱ¬ͷʹѡ赹ǰ£ֻܻ䵽Ӻ˹ɽȷǰĻڵأشšɽʯһӫ⡣

Ȼˡ͵ҡ

мһ©һЩ飬ôصӵģ

غѽ

û˴Ӧ

¬߽֡

⺰ֻͽȻƮɢڿյķ¬߶ͷϳ˺ֻԼǽߵſڡҪǵɫƣЩūǡ

üʹƿţѩӿ˽¬ȫһѩѾûСȶӣſڡԿôѾ߻ȥһ̺Ӳų񣬱˱ķǶȥȻ֪Ϊʲôеҡ

֤ʵԼĻǺеģǶڣĵţûһˡ¬ߴ󺰣Ķȥˣҳ

ײײسȥһ䰤һӡûˣӰһöӷŴ󿪣ϻ˺ѩ

ӱϴˡ¬롣ܿƺûʧûѪʬ塣Ե޹ʵȫʧˡ

ڡ¬ͣûһƥ֮ǻﶼˡ̧ͷǡ¬ȴϮѩһĿ

ȻȫͷĿѣŻˣֹذڵĶ㵹

¬ͻȻо߽ʱѾµˡϲ˵ķȥ᲻ӿ

ѩĻУһӰǴӴDZ߹ġЩǣ糾͡¬˵м䡣

Ϊ׵һͷӷס˭أ

¬˵û˶Ǵӵ

¬ͷǽϡǰҵŲۿʥʯڻûѶֻ̽һ¡ƺʲô£

ʥʯ¬̶ۣסϵ֣ӷʦķʥʯĶ

ǵЩʯͷǷˡ

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ɣЩ¬߰ѹë̺ӵ˵

ϺԱʯͷǵ۹ⶼͶ¬ϡһ˫˫۾ľëȻ

æҵһ澵ľƷŵƹ⣬꾵еݡȻһҽ˷䡣

¬߿ԼͷȫѹˣһĻҰߣֹˣˣһƤã۾ݵ

ϵ˵ǣ˶˫ֽǰ

4

Ҳıѩ䳵ĵϺʹбһԹǰڹһֿٵ綯䳵öࡣ֤ܿʺҺ¶ס񻹵䳵ĥ뵽ҲһҪijҵƽ㡣ʮƥijƥûʲô˭ڸҹ硣뷨ɲñ֪һֱܳΪҹ֮һԺء

ǽӹףں߳ůĺʹеһ߶ȵIJ裬˵DZıںȽ㡣Щмˣ󵨵ʣϻô

ôʣΪ֪ոһһȵ֮С߹˵ºƣ룬ûкúýһ͡

۾ʪ˵һȫһ뵽˽סγϡ˵˵ţIJ

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ͷ۾ߺ˿룺ټҵʱһ㡣

ˣǵ˰ʱſһ߳εĽŲ࣬Ϊټı١

ñӣߴţתȥ΢΢һѵ鷿ټô

ͬǣ˹ϢҡСǣһױ䡣ɳɰĸӰﲮڲࡣݺƺûע⵽

Ǹĸߴ󣬷ׯϵˡʱʲô⡣

˵ɣ˵һ־µضšͬʱһ֧дд

˵ղ˵ˣְԱǸְ߲ԱDz׶ҡġ

ʲô֧վôأIJɵʣ

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ȷʵǶκܳʱ䡣̵΢Цš

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5

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6

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ҳϵIJ£߳ҡһǾͻѹҪߡ˵̤¥ݡĽô꣬ĽŲôýݡ

˷׷ײ²⣬ݽʮӾҪȥҴһ˵ؿ;ǺηʥһһѩƮ룬ٴιرաѺ᳡ķѩˡ

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