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1

ӥŸųԶաһ޼ʣһֻһеӰӡݶգգʹ۾ôõӥŸȥ׷ȺģǴ󱥿ڸӡϵֶ֪ȺĵطͻۣӥŸϵ֣ˮµɱߡݶӿʼżٵڣûеϹһ㡣

ݶѴٶȣһСʱͿԸϵκϺ۵ֳһöö޴ɫ颴ڰˮУ㹳Ӧܵһȥ˼㣬ҲԼţЩشǧĴ㶼͸˭

ͻȻƬɫҫ۵Ķںϡݶſڴϱ߹ۿ㣬ޣɫĶƤƯˮ档֣ݶ룬ⲻ޲ѵļڣֻвѺ޲ŻԼ

ΧԽԽࡣݶһ񾭹ˣƺѾᵽһֲġΣյζΧڴԱߣ

ڣ·һƬϷسĿĵطȫ㣬԰׵Ҷӣܶܶ෭۾һʬ壬ʧȥȴûʧȥǵɫԣشʹ˲ݶ۾

ӥŸڹԵѲݶĿϡмʮֻӥŸƬϿôҲŪͿˡ

һֻ󵨵ӥŸݶ룬ЩжĻҲΣաǷЩɳһԸðճأ

ӥŸˮ棬ֻצǰ쿪ץ㡣ݶȴǸýķֻӥŸһӴˮ棬ɫ͵ؽӲˣʲôڱըһŷһ𲻵ߣغˮһëƵƯϵӥŸתȦӣ˷һַdzһӣǾȫ뿪Ƭ

ݶһˣǵ硣״ִĵһˣ©ҿСֲάɵģȻſϴϹۿʱһ˲øЩһ

ߵ֡ݶصʻϣСת档

Ȼûж

ݶŷתСƽһ˿

ڿʼˡ΢΢ȻDz㣬һڻֲɿܵذĴ̧һ˲䣬ݶΪʲôںƶĴḻܿʶɳˡ

˵ڱˮٳߵĺĴdzˣ

ݶˮ˷µȥǧƽͻȻӿˮĹɳϡ

ĴɳһںһƬ½롣

ûкֻᱻ龰ɵģݶ롣ħ

ʶĴԱʱ˵ᰵһùĴˮDZкܾãȻһӿѴסݶ֪ǺЯľɳͻȻѻںijγɵġ˶ãˮֻ塢ߡ

ʹĵǣħijǿ̨缾ٵǰס

ĵҪ絽ˡݶ̾˿αϡ

ɳ̲ϵɹ÷ˡݶʶűӡǣҺ֪Ϊʲôÿʱⶼر𶾡ʥ̫ôˣе磬Ҳʱ֡

ʵϣݾԵֵġÿһȵǿ籩ɲСʧҽԺ˾⡣ǿ缾һڣƺijÿһ˱ϰߵʵ

ݶϰѧȻѧ˼Ǹжҡԣӣܽʻ鿴˻ȷһ󣬱ڵذǿԼ˯µɳ޲֪ʱˣҲҪȼ졣Ӧɳӱɹụ̂ȵħʱˮڣЩζܵġ

û˯ţϵͨѶѻɳɳ³ֽдݶR-S-1009·תվϢ

رҪڽͨ߸ȼ٣Ա֪ܰͨתվ߷ʽȻĻããҲСġ

ݶǣҲֻù룬һֳʲô£

ͨѶֽˣ³ֽдϴͬ֡

ԺİСʱڣΡ

ݶףһмˡǿɺ޵ħȻû˵ļͷѣŵ룬˲¿϶˼ա

2

Աǰ֮һİ͵³-˵ⲻǸܷæӡ̫յģۿﶼûʲôֲֻ𵭵ζźͷƮɢȫǵĿһɺƽֵľ

ͷջϵ㡣ȣǶ㹳µأúݱ֯ñϡ

ǶһͷվһԿֵ˵ǶжУ㿴

һװװùĹҵġܵԶš

ͷվ¶ˡȥִϵʰƯƿ

ȥܼܵ򵥵˵

ҪȥͷѾڽСˡ

ֵȰˣ㣬ҿɹܲ㣬

ͷѴߣġΪů˯˿Ϸ죬Ȼйζͷֵܣеò⣺ⶫƺܲԾ

ǶڹעˡߺһϴӲϣȻܳءϵڴǣŴϻ˰ߡ

ͷջţ΢˵ˣҰŪ뿴˾ȥ̧ɡ

ǶСһͷ˵а˹̧

ֵǮĶô죿ˮȴ򿪿ɡ

СӰѰ״ǰҳһѼߵĶü𾢵ذѴӽ¿

һɳһӿ˶㿪мŻ³

ð˯ȫˡ͸ɵѷ죬ѾܿĶһ͵ʬ塣

δ㲻ʮֵֺĿΡ֮СŮרõĿ֣ˮֶŮġʱ̣˿Ͷڲշ⣻мλĺܺõŮʿȫͿ˷ɹͣڼװ첢չԡ

ʻԱжôḻ֪ʶѽ˵Ժ״˽⡣

ϲмʻԱá

˵ʲô

Ҳ֪ңDz˵׵״ǽˡ

㿴DZߵĵΧһнʯʻԱķֲҪײˡҸղž˵

ģȱ˵ʯƯСѽ

һɫһٶּСͧӵ챳沨Ư

δѣСײСûлӦ

װϵŮʿǺؾ£ϱߣ۷׷ס

ڶδԼתˡСͧһֻͧδβųСͧ

ûŮֿʼ²⡣

Ĺ°ɣ

ͧӽͧŮˮ˹ȥӺͧı䷽򳯴󴬿

ȥ

ﲻܣǼŮβȥ

ͧڴβˮһһˮּһ˳ͧװϡͷɢɫ԰ףһϢ

ģһŮ˺ϵˣ

԰ϰվڸİ칫͸ҵ۹Χĺ۵ס

ɳšȻȣȻϰԵش˿ƳۡһǷǷмҡ

еС㡣˵ֻհۣô

һ°ƣӴ

ЩŮǴĶŪģϰԾʣɵشŮ˵IJ԰׷ɫDzǵ硣

Ůӣòô

ϰʡ

֪ǻ˵ֻǺƯDzϰ߲԰׵ƤǵġǣǺңˣӼһֱû˵øɶ͸ɶ費Ҫ

ٱ˵ɡ

ҹ

ٵؽżǮһŮͻȻ﷢ƵĸŻ

ǾĿУһɻɫҺ˵ذϡ

ҽʦΪǼֺܳĴȾγɵۺ֢ڳҽԺĽϣһλҽʦ˵

ûվֻ䵭صһͷ䵭һװġ

ǽӵĵˡһλҽ˵dzĴȾӦǿԱġ

ԺŻ۵ǡǸͷͺ巢Сͷƣֱۣγա˵ڻﻮȡְλ

վˡΪϷЧʱҲվġ

ػʮλڣ˵ǰַסĤסԭȾȴȾĵ֢״ϵĴȾҿгʮ֣һһƵĻҩĸþʹ

Ժʣһôͬʱô༲أ

ҵԺֳ𸩾ͰģЩǴĺĺڰ磬ڱ¡ûнӴЩǵҽѧҲ൱󡣵һҹůİ磬ܿͻȾּЩ˾ռߵļ޵ֻֿ

ĿDZʾͬġ

Ժ˵ΪǰDzģ

ⲻصߣشҽѧİȫûбҪš

ԺĬһҵ鲻ô򵥡ôЩҲȾأң̶̵ʱ֮ڣôĺҹ˴˳ߣ

˵ϣҪߡȻЩҰ˵ģΪԺģҾʱԺаɡ

ܴ˿֣ʶذڱӵIJλһҽʦʬʱɲơһߺҹ˵ʬѽ

ߣԡʮҡ߰˴硣ʼ˳ظõߣỮ

ҽʵϰǹŹֵ飬˵Ƥ֬ô

û˽Ļڽ̨ϵģһ߷ͬѰʬ塣DzȷԼͬһ飻ʱסڵѨһķùŹֵ˵ͷڰû̫лʲôأֱ˼顣Щ˳ˣ˾Ϸ䡣

һʵϰͻȻһ

ʬ帹ǻеҺǻɫġ

ѹסͷкͿ־У˵ѪҺҸѪҺΪʲôǻɫģҲ˵Ҳҹ˵Ѫ

鲻Խصһ˶ֻŵضסָŵһСŶ

һήڵ飬ǣӦijһ

ĸһѧ˵

̧ͷ亹˶뿪̣

Ԫ1746꣬ضߴӺҹͷţµ硣

3

R-S-1009·תվǸСվΪƬȻڽͨϣȴʽ򡣵ʳˮ߰ʮ߸ߵķԿ׳ۣˮ»ٳҵǸȻͨĵײصļϢ

ѲݶмģǧϢеһܼԼȻתվڵͨͷ˶ԻһȷԼ

ݶվڼʻգŷӭмֻͣԱߣǸȡͨġȻһ¿Ŀ촬

Ϊ˷籩ǿ촬ȫʽԱʱˮ¡ӴдĸܿǾĴݶ룬ʮѽħҵг̣ڼѾɳѰˡٶȷúĿ촬

ϵǣڿ촬ϵһ칫ݶ˾ֳˡͷ۾ɿݡɫ㲡

ֳûħͺ©Ļ㱨ǰѼƬϡ

ݶƬһλŮӣһӡ̵һ֪ǾԱڶԷûעʱµġݶ۾ֻݲݵɨһ飬ʵѰѴ˵μˡ

ҵֳ˵

һŮˣҪѰһŮˡ

Ȼݶûбֳھֳ˵ˡ

ע⵽Ƥ۾ɫֳϣǸӺڰġ˵ǵԡʱҪdzСģŮ˼ǻۣһЩŹֵµǣǸӡ

4

á

ݶĬϰٱ顣ֵķֳ֡ĻǷӡȻֳǸѻ˵˼ǣŮ˻˵һЩرĻòҪΪǷӡݶܶ˼׽ùһķӣӱͽҲûг˵һdz

˵ԼǴġħǾˡһҲһҡֳԭڲݶԺϷ䣬ϵ־䣬СΪӡеģð˳

Ѵػֳİĺҹ֣Ϊijͷֱ⿪

λŮΪʲôҪԳƾأ

ңǸӡһŮôܵأ

˴εIJȷʵءͬʱݶһֲԤУ·籩֮ǰֽšѹֵĸоȥŮʿ

Զյ̫ʹصЩ㡣ȡȷĽֵϣݶͷԺĺš

źںſŮ˵Ժ˵ݶشӦ

˺٣ΪŮķֽߡҺˣݶͨܽ羯ʡÿ·˶ûɵĿ͵͵ͺǸƵġֵ̫ɹȺ桢ġݶȴţζΡ

һ˳䵭صݸһֽطȥȣСʱԺ͵ޱءɿ˵꣬ᲮݶмĻ߻ŷСȥˡ

Ҳѹ֣ԺŮʿǶϽԺöԺġ

ݶֽϵʾ߽ڷֽϵһߺšֹţԱϱֵС䡣価ͷһ沣ǽ͸ܿһͬӡԱȥʱؽţڲǽǰϡڸŮʿǰƽһԼ

ʮӺǽDZߵķſˡһλŮԱŸŮʿϴμ֮󣬸ŮʿֲЩȥʮˡݶŬסԼĸ飬۾϶Ѿ¶һ㼤ŮʿʱЩ

ƽԶʡ

ݶȻֲ֪Ӻ˵ˡСһţŮʿĵصȴ

ݶ˵Ҫȥһ£һܲװ顣һԶҲˡ

ȷߵǷ¶ػҲҲ淴á˵ΪʲôΣ𣿵ݶҪشʱֹ˵ˡһְֱҵҲʡΪ֮

ݶͷ˵ȥҪߺܶطһЩʡεӿʼҾòԣ

Ҫߺܶط˵ôõߡ

ˣݶʣ룬ôҲ֪

ŮϢͨߣ˵Ǵҹ紫ġסߴȾԼǿֻҪӴˣһ㿴ͻᴫȾȾġ

ҹ紫ģҥҹܵ䣬Ǻ⣬ԶԽߵġ

΢΢һ䣬˵㵱Ȼ޻̸֮ˡ

ݶæͣҲǼ٣ңҺܸˣҷdzˡ

˵⡣ҶκһĹͬġ˭ֻҪ츣ڹڡ

ݶĻҭסþûгǽԵôʵء

ߵһ˵㻹Ҹûȥˡ

һͻij嶯ʹݶһ䣺DzҵǸŮˣ

߽ϵıͷ·ŵĶ¿ˮķӡ

ݶʣŮʿDzģ

ݶʮˡⲻ£ҲǸеĸ顣

ݶĮŵ˵ֻ֪

dz˽ߺ˵㲻ּ˵һ㲻ɵŮˡ

ܾܿ

Ҳǡ߶Ȼ񶨣ܹŹ֣˷С˲뷨

ΪǴСͲԼ˭ġݶ˵ְҵĹϵżȻ

ֱһóͻ塣˵

ŭˡ»߱Թݶϣˣ䵭ġᷳģǧ֮⡣

ݶأŲǽ϶ƣ룬µʹۼȻһܡܱм밮ijƺܹһ޺ܡֵûĴʻ㡣ƺֵܡẰãһʹ֮ѪŮˣֻεذмԶijƺŮʿԺ

ǽǺصģǿɼݶеһ¸ӺӲǽǸͬǧ

ҪԱˡ˵

ݶڲǽŬңҿܻģ밲ĵرۣ

߽סˣŲݶƺоġҡͷ˵ô֪أ

֪ݶ˵ǸϻʿʱҵģΥ涨ԼĺӣǺ

Ťͷȥ˵塣

ŮԱ߽Ÿšûпݶһۡ

ݶϻڵϡոսݵԱȲؿ˵ض˼ӣ۾˿̣һСӵġ

5

ίԱľͷΧԲλǺģЩÿξһʱƽȶ͹۵ۿѧ⡣

˺ϣΪڽijϻפĴʹе͵ĴȰƽ־ɵòְǼලЩǷΥּȫĸĴ£Сĵز͸ǵľߣóϻģҲģ־зӰ졣ӰӹŵǺЧġڣԼλţߵίԱǡ

עĿίԱ硢֪ڵߵ¡Ҫ۵Ҳߡ

ȫίԱüĿ˼һIJɵ̬˽˶̬ĸ޹ءһ˽ȹͷ۾ӥŸһġ˺ϹƣҪƻ

ίԱ²ؼؿα衣˽Ϊ˽¡˭֪ó׺˳μλ顣

ίԱ˫ַϡһ̰۾һеı飬·ʱ׼ҪʲôƵġ

⽻ίԱ̽ÿ˵ɫҪģ룬Ҳϣ׷ӽıžѣΪǴҹ紫

ԼڽίԱͬʱƹԴҲǽ̻ҷԴʩӰԭ֮һ

ѧίԱҴҸϵǸݸ߶ʵɢӡΪԼijٵǸ֮󣬻鿪ʼˡ

ûпףίԱȻصһ˵¾˵Ƕ֪쿪ΪʲôСΧУֵüͻأƽĴȾʽǸա˵ǽӴȾδ˵ͬȾˣΪͨȾ˵ƣΪִ˿Լž֣ʮ۲첡ʱҲȾˡеҽڽʾ䶳ʬʱȾһҹŮӤвҺܿˣԱȫȾߡǵҽѧ羫ӢѾ޲ߡеİ취Ǹ룬ѲԱʬȫڷʽҪκƵijֻȾȺ󡣸˵ԤˡѾڴ˵ħˡ볤ָ㣬˵޻̸֮һΪĩռ١

˵Ŀгšػش

ȫίԱȷԣ¾˵ҲΪʲô䡣dzԣǴҹ紫ģٵķʽʾһмƻĽмҰģ񶾵Ŀģҹô᲻ηأ

ЩҹΪɢߣϧԼίԱ硣

ҽ¡ظ˵ѾһֱܡDzڸġҿ϶Щǵ磬ߵĺҹһ֧ӡ

ȫίԱ˵֮ȶħЩѾڰԵͷˡ

¾⽻ίԱ˵ҾðȫίԱĻһĵҹǴߵģҲһνⲻ˵һ̽߾档һҹðĽǻȡԴǶóϣⲻƽȽסȨһֱԵʹdz˰ĸӹЩҰһѰַǵʹ硢ҹγƽȵĹϵ˭֪أ

Ҳͬ⡣ίԱ˵ϽҹҽѧѧҪꡣһļʹһĪչ

ôȻΪίԱе̱ʣȻżһ䣬¾

ίԱ˹˵¾ϡҲӦˡɵضǸԵIJŶӰ졣˵ȻίԱ߾ȫϢȻϢѾй¶ǾܾҹĽȾϼʹҵЩֳǺΪѡ

Ϊ˹Ļеɡ˵ʲôѾӰ쵽˰תȻӰڡƽ⡣ԣDzʲôˡǽؾԴµĶԲߣһҪһжϱ߳ϻᡣ

¾ϡһֱûпڵĿѧίԱ˵ߴҶо½չ

ȻнչôȫίԱȵ˵Ŷ£ҵĻûв֮⡣

ѧίԱ⣬˵ߵĸԭ롣ƺϸκʲô͸ǷijЩؽǦ룬Ч赲ߵɢ

ؽҵ˵

Ǻҹ˵ôӴ˽벻ǵĽӦı˫Եλ

֤ҵķȫίԱղѧίԱᵽչһƺָֻţҹ紫ߵġ

һĬƺ󣬴ҶһֽȸС

˭ҹίԱǻֵʡ

ίԱ˵֪ҿ϶ǵд

ҵʦҹ˽ٶĻĹ¡⽻ίԱ˵

ίԱǿⷿû˱Ҹ˽ˡҽѾ˲ֹһҹˣġġ

ϹίԱһӵʣ㲻ֽ̻ȡ֡

ίԱ˵Ƿɫ԰ףëأƺûкܴǵ¿ܱˣϹӡ

ԼĹ۵㡣ȫίԱ˵ΣԿǵķǶôҹ벻ķʽ˹ȫ޲ߡ

ȻҪǸƻˡ˵

ȫ޲ߣѧίԱ˵취֪⴫Ⱦİ취Ѿˡ

ÿ֮궼һ׳صǦ·𣿰ȫίԱ΢Цŷⳡ߽ǿʼ־ҹǸʷĽ־˫ԿĿʼ˭ֻ֪ʲôأзЯ߿ܸ޷硣ҲӦÿʼжˡ

ʲôжίԱеʡ

ǵһνǵıȫίԱһһٵ˵

ġίԱ˵ȫίԱ˵仰ʱζŸص顣



ô֪ҵ뷨ίԱʡ

ȫίԱ˵ҵ˼ָսƵѡǶιӾ

ûιƤ֢ίԱ߶š

ʱ㲻֪ںʱúַʽ㡣ҲԶ˺㣬һˣΪԼĴĪȻõİ취ӿǺҹˣ޷رʱôأĴڣǻǿãΪηͳųҺʱٷҲˡþ棬ұңԿĻ㡣

˵úáʲôأίԱʡ

жֶοЧҹ硣磬½ȻֻвԵġ

Ҫʷû顣ѧίԱ˵ľҹܱսҲǵͲá

Ϊʲô

ѧίԱľ˵˵磬ǵùѧ׼ȫڰĵطٱ磬ҹ繺綯ֹܿͣ׮óףΪʲôΨһĽǣҹ޷ʹá

ºҪллѡǿеıԵʹijô

׼أ

ѧίԱ£Ҫ˵ǵͷԵˡһڷֵ⣬ҵļԱʱֺͽ

¶뾪ȷʣô˵ڼǰѰ׼һսˣ

˵ϴˡȫίԱС˵ҪǣΪ߳ϻȨκһλίԱģǹؼʱ̣ɰڴһ٣ҴδκʵϵŬ׼սûûмᲿӣһĽü˾ӱԱ׼ʽĸĽֻһЩоõľԶδԤ㡣ҹвʼմڣǵоӦ˵б޻ñסһСϵһȺУһԤеˮλǣ콫û˵һֻɡĻҲ촬IJϡԼеʱ䣬ԤȰѴͼֽˡʲôԵˮλʱ̰ͼֽѲϼӹã̵ʱôԼʧ

ίԱͷͬĻĿǰⳡΣǿЩ˵

ȴ˵£ѰΪһµѺҹΪûǵĺˮǴġǺһҲµһȺˣҲΪԼǽּеšгһգǻһġȻҹ˾بŲʵϢϢصġһֱΪκһԷ޴ΪԴҪĻ뿪Էܰ˻Ǻҹ˶޷Դڡ

ȫίԱĶͷϳ亹Ķעµùˡ

Ȼϻһת¼ҵ뷨ȻԡҺź˵ʵ֤ȫίԱ׼ʩǼʱġ

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ϼ˵ţȫίԱ׼ϵͳоҪʱͣ۽׶ΣҪʹ۾죻ҪѴϱ߳ϻᡣΣ½ġ򲻵ʱֶΡ

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ݱ˵ĿƬšÿӶٻλʦʱһλֵһٻһλΪӤĸ׶ΣҪвͬרҵʵıˮҵԱ֤Чʺ

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